Kurulus Usman story season 4 volume 103

Kurulus Usman story season 4 volume 103

by মাহবুব সজল

Kurlus Usman

Historical Context:
Artgrul Osman Ghazi was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. The Ottoman Empire was small in size during the time of Uthman and later became a huge empire. The empire survived until the abolition of the Sultanate in 1922. Born 13 February 1258 Sogut, Anatolia. Father-Artugrul Gazi, Mother-Halima Hatun.

According to a popular belief, Ertugrul, the father of Osman I, brought the Turkic Kayi tribe from Central Asia to Anatolia to protect them from Mongol invasion. Osman Rum Sultan first expressed his allegiance to Kayakism. On 17 January 1299, the Sultan of Rum granted him permission to establish a kingdom in Anatolia and expand its borders westward towards the Byzantines. The Ottoman Empire was one of the small Turkish states that emerged in Anatolia after the collapse of the Seljuks. Among these states, the Ottomans eventually united Anatolia under Turkish rule. Due to the westward invasion of the Mongols, a large number of Muslims sought refuge in Osman’s kingdom. The fall of the Byzantine Empire led to the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

After his father’s death, Usman became the chief or bey. By this time, soldiers from all over the Islamic world flocked to the territories under its rule to fight against the weakened Byzantine Empire. Also, many refugees sought refuge in Osman’s emirate to escape the Mongols. There were many Ghazis among them. Under the able leadership of Uthman, these warriors quickly developed into an effective force and thereby laid the foundations of the empire.

Usman’s contribution as a ruler

The Ottoman Empire was named after Osman. Uthman was a skilled administrator as well as a skilled soldier. At the same time, Uthman’s character traits included wisdom and tolerance. Usman was respected by everyone around him because he did not impose anything on anyone as a ruler. As a result there was no conflict among his followers, only loyalty among all. His followers worked with him and obeyed him peacefully. And this is how social unity is formed in a small state and the state gets stability. Apart from this, Uthman formed his own army and conducted various campaigns by himself. Uthman embodied the ideology of Caliph Osman and, like Caliph Osman, placed justice above wealth and power. At the same time, his personal sovereignty was over the administration, so there were no hereditary conflicts among the Ottomans like other dynasties of the time. Most of the leaders of Uthman’s neighboring villages and forts were Christians and were once enemies but in course of time they developed friendly relations with him and they converted to Islam. Not all Christians were forced to convert to Islam within the Ottoman Empire, but a large number of Christians converted to Islam of their own choice because they felt neglected by the Byzantine rulers and that the administration in Constantinople was deteriorating. As a result, due to practical wisdom, they leaned towards the disciplined and trustworthy Uthman. This opened up opportunities for the Muslims and the Asian Greeks turned to the new faith and the new regime. This is how the Ottoman Turks emerged as not just nomads but creators and builders. The Ottomans were a model society that aimed to be like the Byzantines, i.e. to amass their power as the Seljuk Turks filled the void in the Arab Empire.

State boundaries are slowly increasing

Uthman was in no hurry to expand the borders of his own kingdom by conquering neighboring kingdoms. Usman, a slow character, was waiting for the opportunity according to the plan. His doctrine was to live and learn and thus work in Byzantine territory. At that time the Byzantines ruled three cities. To the south was Bursa, in the middle was Nicaea, and to the north was Nicomedia. The three places were only a day’s journey from Uthman’s capital, but Uthman did not attack first.  But he knew that the fortified defenses of the region were of great importance to Constantinople. That’s why he was waiting for the right time to attack some of his own weaknesses. Meanwhile the strength of his own forces increased. At one point, Artughurul’s 400 warriors grew into a massive force of 4,000 warriors, but Uthman had more opportunities to recruit warriors. Unemployed soldiers from neighboring regions were easily recruited because these soldiers had long suffered neglect and oppression from Constantinople. Twelve years after his accession to power in the first year of the 14th century, Karun Hisare Uthman engaged in direct war with the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans started looting in Nicomedia when the Greek troops came to stop them and were easily defeated. At the same time, warriors from different regions of Ashapash joined his group and started proudly identifying themselves as followers of Usman. But Uthman waited for another opportunity without attacking the enthusiastic Nicomedia. Seven years later, when he thought himself strong enough, he attacked the Circaza River behind Nicomia and entered the Bosphorus for the first time as a victor. Gradually, before this, they began to capture various seaports and forts in the Black Sea and damaged the communication system between Bursa and Nicomedia. Interrupting communication between the two cities by sea, he attacked Bursa by land and captured it in 1326, and Osman died. The first capital of the Ottomans was established in occupied Bursa and Osman was buried in Bursa as per his wish.

Usman Ghazi respected the famous Shaikh Edibali and valued his opinion. He often met Edibali.
The dream he saw while staying at Edibali’s dargah one night, he told Edibali the next day. He said, “My Shaykh, I saw you in my dream. A moon has appeared on your chest. It continued to rise and landed on my chest.  A tree grows from my navel. It grows and branches so much that its shadow covers the whole earth. What does this dream mean??
After a moment of silence Edibali explained: “Congratulations Usman! Almighty Allah has granted sovereignty to you and your progeny. My daughter will be your wife and the whole world will be under the protection of your children.”
Osman’s dream played a strong role in the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The dream was an important literary element for Ottoman scholars.

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